Autism Information Guide


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Can You Avoid Having An Autistic Child?

Autism spectrum disorder, also known as ASD, is a developmental disability that can cause social problem, communication and behavioral challenges. It’s estimated that 1 in 59 children are diagnosed with ASD. While there is no known cure for ASD, there are treatments that can help lessen the symptoms and improve the quality of life for those affected. In this article, we’ll explore some of the ways you can reduce your child’s risk of developing ASD.

What is autism?

There is no known cause of autism, although it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for autism, but early intervention and support can make a big difference in the lives of people with ASD.

It is estimated that 1 in 59 children have been diagnosed with ASD in the United States. ASD occurs more frequently in boys than girls, with a ratio of about 4:1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that the prevalence of ASD has increased over time, but it is not clear if this is due to improved diagnosis or other factors.

There is no single symptom or behavior that defines ASD. Rather, it is characterized by a range of symptoms that can vary in severity from person to person. Some people with ASD may only have mild symptoms while others may have more severe symptoms that impact their ability to function in daily life.

The causes of autism

There is a lot of research being done into the causes of autism. While there is not one definitive cause, there are some common threads that researchers have found.

One study shows that genetic reason may be the key reason for causing Autism. Another study say autism is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This means that some people may be more genetically susceptible to autism, and that certain environmental factors may trigger the condition.

Some researchers believe that autism is caused by problems during pregnancy or delivery, which disrupt the normal development of the brain. Others believe that autism is caused by a combination of genetic and neurological factors.

Whatever the cause, it is clear that autism is a complex condition with many possible causes. We still have much to learn about this condition, but hopefully research will continue to shed light on this topic.

Can you avoid having an autistic child?

It’s a question that many parents-to-be ask themselves: can you avoid having an autistic child?

There is no definitive answer, as there is no known cause of autism. However, there are some things that you can do during pregnancy and after birth that may reduce the risk of your child developing autism.

Get prenatal care and screenings: Be sure to get regular prenatal care and screenings during your pregnancy. This will help ensure that any potential health problems are caught early on.

Try to avoid exposure to toxins and environmental pollutants as much as possible during pregnancy and while your child is young. These substances have been linked to an increased risk of autism.

After birth, it’s important to provide your child with opportunities to socialize and interact with other children. This includes things like baby classes, playdates, and time spent with family members and friends.

If you can, breastfeed your child for at least six months. Studies have shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of autism.

Once your child is born, make sure to stimulate their development with activities such as baby massage, reading aloud, and singing songs together. This can help promote social and communication skills, which may reduce the likelihood of autism.

However, there is no surefire way to avoid having an autistic child, but by following these tips, you’ll be giving your child the best possible chance of avoiding autism.

If you are still concerned about the possibility of your child developing autism, talk to your doctor.




Understanding Autistic Meltdown In Adults

Autistic meltdowns are a type of tantrum or outburst that often occurs in adults with autism. A meltdown is generally characterized by an intense and sudden burst of anger, frustration, or fear that lasts for a period of time.

Autistic meltdowns can be really disruptive to both your personal and professional life. If you’re experiencing a meltdown on a regular basis, it might be a good idea to seek out help from a therapist or psychiatrist.

What is an autistic meltdown in adults?

Autistic meltdowns in adults are a real thing and can be very dangerous. They can usually be traced back to some sort of stressor in the person’s life, and they can be extremely disruptive. If you’re ever witness one happening, it’s important to get help as soon as possible.

While autistic meltdowns can be difficult to manage, they can also be serious health risks. If you or a loved one is experiencing a meltdown, it is important to seek help as soon as possible.

There are many options available, including therapy, medication, and self-care tips. Try to remain calm and alert during these times, so that you can take care of yourself and avoid further harm.

Causes of an autistic meltdown in adults

An autistic meltdown is a sudden outburst of intense emotions, usually accompanied by physical actions or words. There can be many reasons why someone might have an autistic meltdown, but the most common are frustration, anger, and fear.

If you’re ever in the middle of a meltdown, it’s important to know what’s going on inside your head. Here are some common causes:

Frustration: Sometimes people with autism find it difficult to communicate their feelings. When they’re frustrated, they may lash out in anger because they don’t know how to express themselves properly.

Anger: People with autism often have a high level of anger and frustration bottled up inside them. When these emotions get out, they can be very destructive.

Fear: Many people with autism feel very scared all the time. When that fear gets out in an uncontrolled way, it can lead to a meltdown.

Symptoms of an autistic meltdown in adults

Autistic meltdowns in adults can be a terrifying experience. They typically involve intense and seemingly uncontrolled anger, frustration, or sadness. In some cases, an autistic meltdown can lead to physical violence or destruction.

According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms of an autistic meltdown may include: a sudden increase in verbal or nonverbal aggressiveness; repeated displays of destructive or self-injurious behaviors; a loss of sense of reality; and a decreased ability to focus or stay calm.

If you’re experiencing one of these symptoms, it’s important to seek help from a professional. There may be treatments available that can help you manage your behavior and improve your overall wellbeing.

How to deal with an autistic meltdown in adults

There are a few things that you can do if you find yourself in the middle of an autistic meltdown in adults. First, try to stay calm and understanding. If you can keep your cool, this may help the person with autism calm down as well.

You could try to engage them in conversation or give them a task to do that will take their mind off of their anger. If that doesn’t work, it may be necessary to remove yourself from the situation completely. There is no shame in seeking help from a trusted friend or family member when things start to get out of control.

Autistic people experience a wide range of emotions and can sometimes have intense outbursts called “autistic meltdowns.” These meltdowns typically happen when an autistic person feels overwhelmed or doesn’t feel understood. They may lash out in any way possible, including screaming, crying, running around uncontrollably, or even self-harming behavior.

As you can imagine, these episodes can be very frightening for those close to the person experiencing them and can lead to a great deal of stress for everyone involved. If you’re ever witness an autistic meltdown in progress, the best thing to do is to stay calm and help the individual get some assistance as quickly as possible.




Why Autistic Child Avoid Eye Contact?

Autism is a condition that affects social interaction and communication. One of the most common symptoms of autism is a child’s reluctance or inability to make eye contact with others. As a result, these children might miss out on important social cues and end up feeling isolated.

In this article, we explore the reasons why autistic children might avoid eye contact and what you can do to help them feel more connected in social situations. We also provide tips for parents on how to encourage eye contact from their autistic child.

Why Autistic Children Avoid Eye Contact

Many autistic children find it difficult or impossible to make eye contact with other people. This may seem strange at first, but there are a few reasons why this is the case. For one, autistic people often find social interaction difficult because it requires them to engage in social rituals that they may not be able to understand or perform correctly. Additionally, many autistic people have a heightened sense of awareness and sensitivity around their eyes and face, which can make it uncomfortable or even scary for them to look someone in the eye.

Why Autistic Child Avoid Eye Contact

Some experts believe that this behavior may stem from an early experience of being ignored or not being accepted by others, which can lead to a feeling of insecurity and isolation. As a result, autistic children may find it difficult to build trust and confidence in social situations, which can in turn lead to difficulties in making contact with other people.

According to Dr. Tony Attwood, an expert on autism and the founder of The Attwood Centre for Autism, children with autism are often uncomfortable with eye contact because they find it difficult to interpret other people’s emotions. As a result, autistic children tend to avoid making direct eye contact in order to avoid any potential misunderstandings or conflicts.

autistic spectrum disorder is a complex and difficult condition to live with. Some people on the autism spectrum may have difficulty initiating or maintaining eye contact, which can be both confusing and unsettling for those around them. It is important to remember that autistic children are just as capable of feeling emotions as any other child, and that they simply need some extra time and patience to learn how to express them in a way that everyone can understand.




Understanding the Difference Between Autism and Developmental Delay

When children don’t meet developmental milestones, or they lose skills they once had, parents may wonder if their child has autism. It’s important to know that there is a difference between autism and developmental delay.

Differences between Autism and Developmental Delay

There are many differences between autism and developmental delay, but one of the most important is that autism is a neurological disorder while developmental delay is not. Autism affects the way the brain develops and processes information, while developmental delay simply means that a child is developing more slowly than is typical. Because of this reason children with autism often have difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors, while those with developmental delay may not. Early intervention is crucial for both conditions, but it is especially important for children with autism in order to help them develop the skills they need to function in society.

Causes of Autism and Developmental Delay

There are many possible causes of autism and developmental delay. genetics is believed to be a factor in both conditions, but environmental factors may also play a role. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that typically affects a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others. ASD includes a wide range, from severe to mild, and is diagnosed four times more often in boys than girls.

Most experts believe that there is not one single cause for ASD. Rather, it is likely that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the condition. Some research suggests that certain genes may make a person more susceptible to ASD. However, it is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will develop the condition.

It is also believed that exposure to certain environmental factors may increase the risk of developing ASD. For example, studies have shown that children who are exposed to high levels of mercury in utero (during pregnancy) are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, research suggests that pregnant women who experience stress or trauma are more likely to have children with ASD.

Treatment for Autism and Developmental Delay

There are many different treatments for autism and developmental delay, but there is no one-size-fits-all approach. Some children may benefit from behavioral therapy, while others may need medication to help manage their symptoms.

The most important thing is to work with your child’s healthcare team to figure out what treatment plan is best for your child. Your children can reach to their full potential quickly and easily with the right support.

Prognosis for Autism and Developmental Delay

Most children with autism or developmental delay make significant progress with early intervention and therapy. But understand the fact that each child is unique and so they will progress at their own pace as no one-size-fits-all approach to treatment. Some children may continue to need support as they transition into adulthood. Hence it is important to work with your child’s therapist to come up with an individualized plan that meets your child’s specific needs.

It is also important to keep in mind that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treatment. What works for one child may not work for another. It is important to work with your child’s therapist to come up with an individualized plan that meets your child’s specific needs.

There is a big difference between autism and developmental delay, though they can both be characterized by similar symptoms. Autism is a neurological disorder that affects social interaction, communication, and behavior, while developmental delay simply refers to a child developing more slowly than their peers. Early intervention is key for both conditions, but it is especially important for autism because the sooner treatment begins, the better the chances are for improvement.




Sleep Disorder In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorder, also known as ASD, is a developmental disability that can cause social problem, communication and behavioral challenges. There are many different symptoms, and they can vary in severity. Some children with ASD do not speak at all, while others might speak but not be able to have a back-and-forth conversation. Some children with ASD might have very intense reactions to certain sounds or textures. Many children with ASD also have sleep disorders.

There are many different types of sleep disorders that can affect children with autism. The most common include insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome. Each of these disorders can have a significant impact on a child’s quality of life.

Sleep disorders can have a serious impact on a child’s quality of life. If your child is having difficulty sleeping, it is important to talk to your doctor about treatment options.

Effects

There is a lot of research that has been conducted on sleep disorders in children with autism and the effects that they can have on the child. Some research has shown that sleep disorders can actually worsen the symptoms of autism in children. When a child is not getting enough sleep, they are not able to function properly and their brains are not able to process information correctly.

Mostly this can lead to an increase in autistic behaviors. Other research has shown that sleep disorders can also cause problems with behavior, attention, and social skills in children with autism. It is important to note that not all children with autism will experience sleep disorders, but it is still something that should be monitored. If you think that your child might be experiencing a sleep disorder, it is important to talk to their doctor so that they can get the help they need.

Types

There are three types of sleep disorders that are common in children with autism: insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.

  1. Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep. Children with autism are more likely to experience insomnia than neurotypical children.
  2. Sleep apnea is a kind of sleep disorder where the child pauses breathing during sleep.
  3. Restless leg syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs.

Treatments

There are a variety of treatments for sleep disorders in children with autism. Some children may benefit from medication, while others may do better with behavioral therapy. In some cases, a combination of both medication and behavioral therapy may be the best approach.

If your child has difficulty sleeping, it is important to talk to your child’s doctor about treatment options. There are many effective treatments available, and the best approach will vary depending on your child’s individual needs.

It’s important to be aware of sleep disorders in children with autism and to seek help from a sleep specialist if necessary. Many children with autism have difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep, which can lead to fatigue and other problems.

If your child is showing signs of a sleep disorder, don’t hesitate to talk to your doctor or a sleep specialist. With the right diagnosis and treatment, your child can get the rest he or she needs to feel refreshed and ready for each new day.




How To Use Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapy To Treat Children With Autism

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy is a type of treatment that has been shown to be effective in treating autism spectrum disorder. ABA therapy focuses on improving specific behaviors, such as social skills, communication, and self-care.

If you are a parent of a child with ASD, you may be considering ABA therapy as an option for treatment. This article will provide an overview of ABA therapy and how it can help your child.

What is ABA Therapy?

ABA therapy is a treatment method for autistic children that is based on the principles of behaviorism. This type of therapy uses positive reinforcement to encourage desired behaviors and discourage undesired behaviors. ABA therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing autistic symptoms and improving functioning in children with autism.

How Does ABA Therapy Work?

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy is a treatment method for autism that has been shown to be effective in reducing autistic behaviors and improving social and communication skills. ABA therapy is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which involve reinforcing desired behaviors and reducing or eliminating undesired behaviors.

ABA therapy programs are individualized to meet the needs of each child and are typically delivered in one-to-one sessions. In ABA therapy, therapists use a variety of techniques to teach new skills and improve existing ones. These techniques may include positive reinforcement, modeling, and shaping. ABA therapy can be delivered in a clinic, home, or school setting.

Many parents of children with autism report seeing positive changes in their child’s behavior after starting ABA therapy. ABA therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for autism, but it is important to find a qualified therapist who has experience working with children with autism.

What Are The Benefits of ABA Therapy?

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy is a treatment approach that has been shown to be effective in helping children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) improve their social and communication skills and reduce problem behaviors. ABA therapy is based on the principles of behaviorism, which focuses on the idea that behavior can be learned and changed through reinforcement and punishment.

There are many different techniques that are used in ABA therapy, but all of them share the same goal: to help the child with ASD learn new skills and reduce problem behaviors. ABA therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for ASD, and it can be customized to meet the needs of each individual child.

If you are considering ABA therapy for your child with ASD, here are some of the potential benefits that you may see:

Improved social skills: ABA therapy can help children with ASD learn how to interact with others and improve their social skills.

Improved communication skills: ABA therapy can also help children with ASD develop better communication skills. This may include learning how to use gestures, facial expressions, and body language to communicate.

How ABA Therapy Help Children With Autism

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy is a treatment method that has been shown to be effective in helping children with autism improve their social, communication, and behavioral skills. ABA therapy is based on the principle that all behavior is learned and that positive reinforcement can be used to encourage desired behaviors. The goal of ABA therapy is to help children with autism develop the skills they need to function as independently as possible in their homes and communities.

ABA therapy typically involves one-on-one sessions between a child and a trained therapist. During these sessions, the therapist works with the child on specific goals, such as learning to communicate more effectively or improving social skills. ABA therapists also work closely with parents and caregivers to provide them with guidance and support.

If you are considering ABA therapy for your child with autism, it is important to find a qualified therapist who has experience working with children with this condition. You can ask your child’s doctor for referrals or contact your local Autism Society for more information.

Are There Any Risks Associated With ABA Therapy?

When it comes to autism treatment, ABA therapy is one of the most popular and effective methods. However, as with any type of therapy, there are always risks involved. Here are some of the potential risks associated with ABA therapy:

Behavioral problems: ABA therapy can sometimes result in behavioral problems, such as aggression or self-injurious behavior.

Anxiety: ABA therapy can also cause anxiety in some children.

Excessive focus on one skill: Some children may become excessively focused on one skill or task during ABA therapy and neglect other important areas of development.

Intolerance to change: ABA therapy can be very structured and rigid, which may not be tolerated well by some children.

These are just some of the potential risks associated with ABA therapy. It’s important to discuss all of the risks with your child’s therapist before starting treatment.

How Long Does ABA Therapy Last?

Applied behavior analysis therapy is a treatment for autism that is usually provided in intensive, individualized sessions. The length of time that ABA therapy lasts depends on the individual child’s needs and progress. Some children receive ABA therapy for a few months, while others may need it for several years. In general, the earlier ABA therapy is started, the better the chances are for long-term success.

How Can I Find ABA Therapists in My Area?

If you’re looking for ABA therapists in your area, there are a few ways to find them. You can search online directories, such as the Association for Behavior Analysis International’s Therapist Finder. You can also ask your child’s doctor or another autism specialist for recommendations. Once you’ve found a few therapists, you can call or email them to ask about their training and experience with ABA therapy.

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy is an effective treatment for autistic children. It can help to improve communication skills, social skills, and behavior. ABA therapy is individualized to meet the needs of each child. If you are considering ABA therapy for your autistic child, be sure to find a qualified therapist who has experience working with autistic children.




Autism Treatment through Vitamins and Minerals

Autism is a neurological disorder that can present a variety of challenges, including difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Although there is no cure for autism, there are treatments that can help lessen the symptoms and improve the quality of life for those affected.

One promising treatment for autism is vitamins and minerals. Several studies have shown that certain vitamins and minerals can help improve symptoms of autism, especially when used in combination with other therapies.

Some of the most effective vitamins and minerals for treating autism include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin C, and omega-3 fatty acids. These nutrients are involved in a variety of biochemical processes in the body, and they have all been shown to be deficient in some people with autism. In addition to vitamins and minerals, other supplements such as probiotics and omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to be helpful for some people with autism.

If you’re considering using vitamins and minerals to treat autism, it’s important to work with a qualified healthcare professional to develop a plan that’s right for you or your child.

New and Different Therapies for Dealing with Autism

The most modern therapy in autism is oral secretin. This when given along with vitamins three times a day showed a good change in the behavior within three days. Their social skills also enhanced. The total cost of the secretin and the vitamins together amounted to $60, when continued for two days and the vitamins for a longer period as long as possible.

The next new therapy is the stem cell therapy, live cells therapy, oral organ extracts and the Lyophilisate extracts. These are therapies where either ones own cell, or from animal, or gut cells from brain cells or Lyophilisate whole cells are used in the treatment of autistic persons.

The antibiotic drug vanomycin is widely used as it gets easily absorbed in the gut. Metronidazole, the anti-protozoan drug helps to treat autism as the intestine absorbs it easily and prevents diarrhea which is a common symptom in autism.

Endorphins which gives numbness is blocked with the usage of Naltrexone, a new medicine used for autistic people. This medicine enhances the eye contact, pain sensitivity, reduced typecast behaviors and also self wounding behaviors. There are no side effects till date with this medicine and it also increases the craving for food in autistic children.

Your physician can guide you in more advanced therapies and treatment in autism.




Autism – Its Indications

A child never shows any signs of autism during birth and it takes time to note the marked and different behavior. The parents and the caregivers become aware of this different behavior before the child turns three.

The common warning sings and indications of autism are:

1) When the child does not like when held close or embraced.

2) When the child is unable to recognize objects on its own and cannot name when asked by the time the child is twelve months old.

3) When the child not join while you play peek-a-boo and cannot relate it.

4) When the child becomes violent even for a common matter and has a destructive behavior like banging his/her head against any physical thing.

5) When the child repeats a particular behavior like opening and closing drawers or doors continuously.

6) When is more attracted with the parts of the plaything rather than the actual mechanism of the plaything.

Whenever you detect such indications in a child it is necessary that the parent or the caregiver seek the help of a doctor. An early intervention and assessment helps in the treatment of the child efficiently.

Specific body pose, facial expressions are signs of autism. The child remains aloof and does not mingle with other children and does not have an eye to eye contact. They do not emote naturally both during joy and sorrow and also do not respond to feelings of the other person.

Autistic children do not speak or at times have delay in speech. People or children with autistic features have difficulty to have a good flow while talking and tend to repeat some words again and again. So the person has a hitch while talking and continuing it. Swaying of the body, shaking and wringing of hands are also indications of autism behavior.

Autistic children and adults are obsessed with parts of the object than its main action. They set a specific routine and stick on to it at any cost. Any modification in the routine disturbs the autistic person. This can be from the normal activity in day to day life and also in the other practices.




A peep into Autism

Autism is a neurological brain disorder exhibited by one or many children in your neighborhood. Some look very normal and show autism through their sudden outburst or strange behavior. This holds good for us as whenever we take our son to the store or to doctors chamber his uncontrollable behavior shows he is an autistic child.

We feel very awkward when after repeated warning and requests the child behaves strangely with people looking at him amazed. There have been embarrassing situations that make us pass rude comments as they do know that the child is autistic. This is because of the unawareness in the society.

So here are a few lines on autism. It is a serious neurological brain disorder which starts from infancy by the age of three and persists till adulthood. Autism impairs the social and communication skills of the affected children. They have other behavior problems like insensitivity to the surroundings, repetitive behavior, lack of response to touch even by parents, self stimulating activity like rocking, spinning without feeling giddy, self wounding are a few major behavior problems.

All autistic children are unique and the level of autism differs from one child to another. So this variation in autism is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

I would like to share the experiences I have with my seven year old autistic son who lacks speech and shows me things by pictures and gestures. His bad temper is due to the lack of communication. Guess how you would feel when you cannot express yourself clearly even when in pain and also feel very sensitive when patted or caressed.

My love for my child has helped me to face the problem bravely despite the fact some think bad parenting is the cause for autism in children. Lack of awareness in the subject of autism makes people say that the child needs discipline and autism is an excuse for many parents. This upsets me but one would know the pain only when they have an autistic child in their family.

There was a time when we felt we were a misfit in the normal society but we have braved the war on autism and after seven years my son is able to wave hello and bye-bye with the behavior therapies we followed. So autism does not affect us and come as an excuse for our normal and happy life.

Unfortunately there are millions of parents who love and support their autistic child in spite of being unhappy situation. It is sad to say that medical insurance does not cover the expensive and most needed therapy for these children. We feel upset when assistive technology and sensory integration are not included in our childrens educational program.

So, as a request to the society I would like to say that whenever you see an unruly child in the store or in public place never comment on the upbringing of the parent. It could be an autistic child unable to respond to the situation which needs your love and affection and not humiliation.




A Modern Approach in Teaching Autistic Children

There has been a clear-cut increase in autism rate in United States. A data which shows 1person in 10,000 in 1970s now shows as 1.5 million autistic people. So a company has started a reading system for the autistic person which is a blessing in disguise for the parents and caregivers who can now improve the reading skills of their autistic children with its assistance.

A fellow worker at Colorado University Dr. Temple Grandin who is the writer of two books on autism has done a considerable research in this subject and how to teach such autistic people and children. She says “Many people with autism are visual thinkers,” She was an autistic child herself and says that she does not think in languages instead think visualizes in pictures which runs in her thoughts.

The Readent learning system formulated by SFK Media built it with this idea. All classic children movies are encoded as “Reading Movies,” and as the actors speak the text is available on the screen which helps the autistic to improve their vocabulary and also understand the language.

The modern approach for teaching, reading by The Readent for autistic children includes all notes by proficient like Dr. Grandin and other scientists. Len Anthony Smith, chief executive officer of SFK Media says that the interactive wordplay dictionary and the quizzes and games for knowledge have a very good impact on the autistic learners.

Grandin gives the following guidelines for teaching children with autism.

As people with autism have problem with remembering long chain of talk it is better to voice one command at a time. They follow the commands better when written down on a piece of paper.

To teach number concept use real visual methods like set of blocks with different size and color from 1 to 10. To teach fractions use wooden fruit cut into half and quarters.

Autistic children with less motor skill have problems in writing efficiently and this problem is solved by letting the child to use the computer to type the matter.

For children with problem in remembering the key board placed near the screen will be of great help.

For children who have difficulty in speaking flashcards help them to relate words and pictures. For children who have difficulty to follow the drawings, real objects and photos facilitate in their learning.




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